After 1992, when the UK signed up to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (a convention which includes woodlands), the country became obliged to meet certain biodiversity targets (and in fact the UK was the first country to develop a comprehensive national plan of action - the UK Biodiversity Action Plan, or UKBAP). The advent of a degree of devolution in the UK meant that the UKBAP had to be recast, and the work is now co-ordinated by a joint committee of the consituent countries working toward the UK Post-2010 Biodiversity Framework. Despite these changes in adminstration there is still an underlying objective of protecting and enhancing a range of priority species and habitats, often still based on the objectives and classifications of the original UKBAP.
UKBAP priority habitats involving woodlands
Rivers, threatened river species and water quality can benefit consideraby from riparian woodland planting.
|Wood-Pasture and Parkland|
These are mosaic habitats valued for their often ancient trees (the oldest living organisms in the UK) and the species they support (particularly insects, lichen and fungi) that are unique to such habitats.Many Forest Carbon projects involve the creation of new woodland habitat to support and link remnants of these ancient woodlands.
Upland oakwoods are characterised by a predomince of oak (generally sessile oak, but also pedunculate oak) and birch, and also including rowan, hazel and holly. Ground cover typically includes bluebells, bramble, fern, bracken and moss.
Upland oakwoods also have a distinctive bird life, being associated with redstarts, wood warblers and pied flycatchers. In Wales the woods are the main breeding areas for red kites.
This type of woodland, as found in the UK and Ireland, is recognised as important internationally because of its rarity elsewhere.
|Upland Mixed Ashwoods|
Ash woodlands that also contain oak, yew, birch, elm, lime and hazel trees, and are found in upland Britain and Northern Ireland.
Ashwoods are amongst the richest habitats for wildlife in the uplands, notable for bright displays of flowers, including rare species such as Jacob's Ladder and autumn crocus. Ashwood also often contain rare tree species, such as whitebeam and large-leaved lime.
These woodlands are dominated by silver and downy birch, and often include rowan, juniper, willow and aspen.
|Native Pine Woodlands||Native pinewoods occur on infertile soils, and although they do not support a large diversity of plants and animals compared with some more fertile habitats they do house a characteristic plant and animal community which includes many rare and uncommon species. |
The main tree species is Scots pine although birche, rowan, alder, willow, and bird cherry are also found. Old or dead trees and rotting wood supports significant beetle and bryophyte communities. Britain`s only endemic bird species, the Scottish crossbill, and rare species such as twinflower and one-flowered wintergreen are also found mainly in the native pinewoods.
In pre-historic times native pine forests may have covered over 1.5 million ha in the Scottish Highlands, but now they only some 16,000 hectares. Regeneration is being hampered in many areas by heavy browsing by deer and sheep, however recent regeneration schemes have expericned some success.
Biodiversity is so important to the health of our environment that anyone planting a forest in the UK needs permission from the Forestry Commission before going ahead - a process that involves a host of biodiversity and other surveys and consultations, including consultations with bodies such as Natural England and the RSPB.Gold standard certification for all types of woodland scheme in the UK is the UK Woodland Assurance Standard (UKWAS), which covers areas such biodiversity, woodland design, sustainable management and environmental impact. Certification to this standard ensures that woodlands meet the requirements of the government's UK Forestry Standard (UKFS), plus those of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certication Schemes (PEFC). The vast majority of Forest Carbon woodlands are UKWAS certified, and where they aren't they do all nonetheless meet the requirements of the UK Forestry Standard.